The electric car industry has taken the world by storm and has seen a lot of advancements. These advancements are all focused on making the vehicle better and more efficient.
One of the biggest innovations in electric cars is battery technology. Batteries are a huge part of the cost of an electric vehicle, and they’re also a critical structural element in the vehicle.
1. Lithium-Ion Battery
The Lithium-Ion Battery is a type of rechargeable battery used in many electronic devices, including electric vehicles. It has a higher energy density than lead-acid and nickel-cadmium rechargeable batteries, saving space in battery packs.
A lithium-ion battery has two electrodes: an anode and a cathode, separated by a separator and immersed in a conductive liquid called an electrolyte. A battery management system (BMS) balances the charge across these cells and monitors temperature to ensure that they are working at their optimal capacity and performance levels.
Lithium-ion batteries are a great choice for electric vehicles due to their lightweight design and high energy density. They are also very safe and do not vent dangerous gases, unlike flooded lead acid batteries.
2. Solid-State Battery
Electric vehicles are a growing market in the US, and automakers are working to make them more attractive to buyers. But despite their advantages over gas-powered cars (lower carbon emissions, faster recharge times), the EV revolution hasn’t been without its challenges.
A new battery technology, known as solid-state, is promising to be a game changer for the EV market because it’s lighter and safer than liquid electrolytes. It should also offer greater energy density, faster charging and a longer lifespan.
It’s also a lot cheaper to produce than conventional Li-ion batteries thanks to the lack of flammable liquid electrolyte, and could be up to 39% less carbon intensive according to research by the Brussels-based clean transport advocacy group Transport and Environment.
However, a battery tech developer says that solid-state batteries are still a decade away from being ready for mass production. “Today, a solid-state battery is an extreme fast-charging battery technology that requires real-world testing and validation from automotive OEMs before it can be deployed into cars,” said StoreDot CEO Doron Myersdorf.
3. Electric Motors
Electric Motors are an incredibly versatile technology that has been applied in many fields. They are used in vacuum cleaners, dishwashers, computers, fax machines, video cassette recorders, machine tools, printing presses, automobiles, subway systems, sewage treatment plants and water pumping stations, to name just a few.
In a nutshell, an electric motor works by converting electrical energy into mechanical energy through a magnetic field and current flow. The current flows through the coil in the presence of the magnetic field, creating a force that causes the shaft to rotate and turn the wheels.
There are a few different types of electric motors, ranging from single-phase AC to three-phase AC. Single-phase motors require auxiliary starting power and may only have a small amount of torque, while three-phase motors are self-starting and may produce 500% starting torque.
4. Battery Management System
The Battery Management System (BMS) ensures that EVs run safely by monitoring voltage and temperature of the battery cells. This prevents overcharging and discharging which may reduce the battery’s life span, capacity and even cause explosions.
BMSs monitor vital operating parameters including cell/unit voltage and current, resistance, ambient temperature, electrolyte levels, and more. They also capture state of charge data (SOC), a kind of fuel gauge that displays the usable amount of energy.
For a battery based on lithium-ion chemistry, the BMS must be capable of regulating charging and discharging to meet maximum continuous current limits while handling peak currents if needed to account for changes in load conditions.
These systems come in a variety of forms, but their main function is to take care of the battery. They can be categorized as modular or centralized.